I.What is the basic PaleoScan workflow?         

  1. Import data into PaleoScan: seismic, faults, wells, markers, culture data;
  2. Insert or interpret constraint areas in PaleoScan: faults, salt (Multi-Z);
  3. Model-Grid computation:

    1. Choose the right Model-Grid parameters for the seismic: patch size, polarity, smooth level, undersampling;
    2. Refine the AutoInterp Model-Grid (horizon editing), using the cross-navigation mouse mode (G shortcut) and then W to activate horizons and M to mark them;
    3. Quality check the interpretation using preview modes.
  4. 3D Geo-Model Computation

    1. Choose the 3D Geo-Model parameters: smooth size, link probability, interpolation size;
    2. Quality check the Geo-Model.
  5. 3D Geo-Model applications:

    1. Basic platform: Horizon Stack, Attributes, Geobody modelling, Fault management, Salt management, Well correlation;
    2. Add-on modules: Sequence stratigraphy, Automatic geobody extraction, Property modelling, RGB blending, Well tie, Coloured inversion, Spectral blueing.

II. I am not satisfied with some parts of my model grid; how can I refine/edit it?

I. Disconnect Patches of Active Horizon:To disconnect all the patches composing the active horizon displayed in the Horizon Viewer, the user needs to click on the Disconnect All Patches From Active Horizon button in the Model-Grid toolbar. The current horizon will progressively disappear from the Horizon Viewer. This horizon will no longer be taken into account in the Model-Grid interpretation, it can then be picked again in a better way.

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II. Disconnect Patches between Horizons:

  1. In order to clear the interpretation in a specific location of the Model-Grid, patches between horizons can be disconnected. This means that the links between all the patches included between these horizons will be broken with a 3D effect. The interpretation can be restarted later without any automatic propagation in order to manually control the propagation between patches. The refinement of this blank zone will be controlled using the correlation threshold available from the Interp Viewer properties. Links between both horizons are no longer taken into account in the Model-Grid interpretation. As a result, marked horizons previously included in this area will disappear.

    The horizons used to define the area in which patches will be disconnected have to be marked horizons.

    The user has to select both marked horizons by using the selection mouse mode and the CTRL key and then click on the Disconnect All Patches Between two selected Horizons option available from the Model-Grid toolbar.
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III. Filling Option:Once the horizon is propagated, the small gaps can be filled using the Fill Active Horizon option of the Model-Grid toolbar. To do so, the user has to click on the button several times to complete as much as possible the horizon. This tool uses the similarity of the seismic traces to connect neighbouring patches to the horizon displayed in the horizon viewer. 

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IV. Horizon Edition:

  1. By using the 2D Preview Model & Position Line, Model-Grid stratigraphic organization inconsistencies can be detected.

    Editing tools such as Edit a Horizon, Eraser and Patches Selection, as well as the Force Model-Grid interface are available to quickly refine any horizon.

III.How can I apply a spectral decomposition to horizon stacks in order to do a RGB blending?

  1. Click on the Spectral Decomposition tool in the Attributes toolbar
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2. Drag and drop the input volume into the Volume selection area.

Then, use the cross-navigation mouse mode to select a trace that shows an event of interest. The frequency spectrogram along the seismic trace will be displayed. The method to use, either Short Time Fourier Transform or Continuous Wavelet Transform, and its corresponding parameters can be chosen.

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3. Using the Frequency Picking mouse mode, double click on the Spectrogram viewer to select frequencies. The selection of the frequency can be laterally adjusted and a preview of the current selected frequency decomposition is then displayed

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4. Save the outputs: create volumes or real-time attributes.

If three frequencies have been selected and the Advanced Interpretation add-on module is activated, the three resulting real-time attributes from this interface can be sent to a volume colour blending viewer, using the Send to RGB Viewer button.

5. Display the results on Horizon Stacks.

Open a Horizon Stack, right click on the window and select Duplicate Horizon Stack with new attribute or create a new one. Then, select the None filter and drag and drop the saved volume or real-time attribute from Spectral Decomposition. Several Horizon Stacks can be created at the same time by clicking on the cross at the top of the window, especially if several volumes with different frequencies have been computed. Then click on Run to create the Horizon Stacks.

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If the frequencies and parameters to be applied are already known, Spectral Decomposition can be selected as the filter option. The Horizon Stack can then be directly created without computing new volumes or real-time attributes.

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Once the 3 Horizon Stacks have been created, they can be displayed in a Horizon Stack Color Blending Viewer to help the seismic interpretation (if the Advanced Interpretation add-on module is activated). This tool is available from the Color Blending toolbar. The colour blending can also be displayed in the 3D viewer.

I.What is the 2D lines interpretation workflow?

  1. Create a 2D line set with the desired 2D lines using the New 2D Line Set button available from the 2D Line toolbar:
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  1. Generate a 2D Model-Grid on the 2D line set that has been created. Click on the New 2D Model-Grid button available from the Model-Grid toolbar and select the desired 2D line set as an input:
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  1. Refine the Model-Grid using the same tools as for a 3D Model-Grid (Cross-navigation mouse mode, W shortcut to activate a horizon, M to mark it);
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3. Refine the Model-Grid using the same tools as for a 3D Model-Grid (Cross-navigation mouse mode, W shortcut to activate a horizon, M to mark it);

4. Generate the 2D Geo-Model using the Compute Geo-Model button available from the Model-Grid toolbar:

5. Generate a 2D Horizon Stack using the New 2D Horizon Stack button of the Horizon Stack toolbar:

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  1. 6. Optional:  2D Horizon Stack can be interpolated using the 2D Horizon Stack Interpolation option of the Horizon Stack toolbar. The interpolated 2D Horizon Stack will be considered as a 3D Horizon Stack:
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7. Optional: A pseudo 3D Geo-Model can finally be created from the 2D interpolated Horizon Stack using the 3D Geo-Model from Horizons tool, available in the Horizon toolbar:
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